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In the faces of Giotto's figures are joy, rage, despair, shame, spite and love. The cycle of frescoes of the Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin that he painted in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua set a new standard for narrative pictures. He is regarded as the herald of the Renaissance. In the early Duecento in Italy started to appear the Italian Gothic. The first Italian Gothic edifices were Cistercian abbeys. They spread in the whole Italian territory, often adapting the construction techniques to the local traditions. There were in fact brickwork edifices in the Pianura Padana , while stone prevailed in central Italy and Tuscany.

Catalog Record: Motif-index of Italian novella in prose | HathiTrust Digital Library

In the latter was sometimes present the by-chrome wall decoration from the local Romanesque tradition. Among the non-Cistercian buildings of this century which were influenced by the Gothic style, though still presenting important Romanesque features, are the Parma Baptistery by Benedetto Antelami and the church of Sant'Andrea in Vercelli , also featuring Antelami's influences.

ARTH 4037 Domenico Veneziano

This century saw the construction of numerous Gothic buildings for the Mendicant Orders. The most important ones include:. Also notable is the civil and military construction program promoted by Emperor and King of Sicily Frederick II of Hohenstaufen in southern Italy at the beginning of the century. The most important works promoted by him include:. In this period some cathedrals were also constructed or finished, such as the Siena Cathedral. Vita di San Francesco , of Bonaventura Berlinghieri , Giotto : St.

Les Amours d’Hippolyte

Francis' Sermon to the Birds. Basilica of San Francesco of Assisi : Nave of the upper basilica built — Guido da Siena 's "Fuga in Egitto". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cross of Santa Croce , of Cimabue. Pulpito a Siena, by Nicola Pisano.

Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 1 June Princeton University Press. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 October — via New Advent. The Italian Language Today. Duccio: Tuscan Art and the Medieval Workshop. Thames and Hudson. Lives of the Artists. The World of Giotto. Domenico Veneziano c. Another feature of this new direction can be seen in the work of the enigmatic Domenico Veneziano. His name indicates that he came from Venice, and it is recorded that he arrived in Florence in He was associated with both Fra Angelico and Andrea del Castagno, and was involved in training the somewhat younger Piero della Francesca.

Veneziano's St. Lucy Altarpiece c. The colour in the altarpiece, however, is Domenico's own and bears no relation to the Florentine tradition. His juxtaposition of light greens and pinks and his light tonality point instead to the Venice Renaissance and his initial training in the city. Also, by lowering the vanishing point so as to make the figures appear to tower over the observer, the monumentality of the painting is increased but the observer's sense of participating in the painting is correspondingly reduced.

Piero della Francesca After receiving his early artistic training in Florence, Piero della Francesca spent most of his career as a painter outside the city, in such places as Urbino, Arezzo, Rimini, and his native Borgo San Sepolcro, in Umbria. His best-known masterpiece Flagellation of Christ , now in the Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino, reveals a keen interest in mathematics, perspective, and proportion.

The poised sculptural figures are disposed in clear, rational space and bathed in a cool light. This gives them a calm dignity that can only be compared to ancient Greek sculpture.

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A similar tendency can be seen in Piero's fresco cycle in the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. Piero della Francesca's approach to painting had a noticeable influence on younger artists including the foreshortening expert and quadraturista Melozzo da Forli There was a temporary hiatus in Florentine Renaissance painting during the period All the older artists had passed away, and those fated to dominate the second half of the century were too young to have experienced prolonged contact with them.

Three of these younger artists, Antonio Pollaiuolo, Alessandro Botticelli, and Andrea del Verrocchio, began their careers as goldsmiths, which explains the linear and decorative emphasis if not also the sense of movement noticeable in Florentine painting of the later quattrocento. Antonio Pollaiuolo In addition to being a goldsmith, Antonio Pollaiuolo was a sculptor, painter, engraver, and also an architect.

Catalog Record: Motif-index of Italian novella in prose | HathiTrust Digital Library

His work reveals a fascination with muscles in action, and he is reportedly the first artist to dissect a human body. In the celebrated altarpiece The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian , National Gallery, London he shows the archers from two angles in order to demonstrate their muscular activity.

His sculpture Hercules and Antaeus , like the engraving of The Battle of the Nudes , portrays violent struggle. The Rape of Deianira Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut emphasizes another new element in Florentine painting, namely the landscape setting - in this case a beautiful view of the Arno Valley with Florence in the background. Sandro Botticelli A similar interest in moving figures, a feeling of movement across the surface of the painting, and landscape, is found in the earlier works of Botticelli , one of many great artists patronized by the Medici Family in Florence.

In his celebrated work La Primavera , Uffizi he uses line in depicting hair, billowing drapery, and the contour of an arm in order to suggest the movement of the figures. At the same time the flow of the figures created a rising and falling linear movement across the picture surface. Similar effects of movement are evident in his other masterpiece The Birth of Venus Uffizi, Florence.

Botticelli's well-known Madonna and Child paintings reveal a sweetness that may derive from Fra Filippo Lippi, together with his own sense of grace. Sadly, following the terror and chaos instigated by the fanatical religious reformer Girolamo Savonarola , Botticelli allegedly suffered a breakdown: an event which led him to adopt a more emotional and overtly devout style of painting which effectively denied almost all of the aesthetics of Renaissance art.

Other Early Renaissance Painters in Florence.

Catalog Record: Motif-index of Italian novella in prose | HathiTrust Digital Library

Florentine artists active towards the end of the 15th century include Andrea del Verrocchio , best known as the master of Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino , noted for his Sistine Chapel fresco Christ Handing the Keys to Saint Peter There was in addition Filippo Lippi's son Filippino Lippi , who became a pupil of Botticelli's after the death of his father. Filippino Lippi was responsible for a group of Madonnas that are easily mistaken for Botticelli's own work.

By , however, he had developed a rather agitated style of painting as shown in his masterpiece, the expressive Vision of St. Bernard in the Badia, Florence. His later works like the series of frescoes in Santa Maria Novella are marked by a colour and distortion of form that may have influenced the development of Mannerism some two decades later. Another figure active in Florence in the final decades of the 15th century was Domenico Ghirlandaio , the prolific and popular fresco painter, whose artistic career was spent as a chronicler of life in Florence.

His art, though already old-fashioned, helped to train a large number of Florentine artists, among them Michelangelo creator of the monumental Genesis fresco and Last Judgment fresco cycles in the Sistine Chapel , in the difficult practice of fresco painting. The Florentine Renaissance Spreads.

Quattrocento (Spanish Edition)

By mid-century, the artistic discoveries and experiments of quattrocento Florence had already begun to spread across Italy. Its impact in Siena was slight however, since in general, the Sienese School of painting upheld the conservative decorative traditions of the International Gothic style, in both panel-painting and altarpieces as well as International Gothic illuminations. Meanwhile, in the centres of Padua and Venice, painters emerged whose interpretation and enhancement of Florentine techniques actually began to challenge the preeminence of the Renaissance capital.

Andrea Mantegna Andrea Mantegna was considerably influenced by the teaching of his master, Francesco Squarcione , the art of antiquity around him, and the sculpture produced by Donatello in Padua. The frescoes he painted in in the Ovetari Chapel of the Eremitani Church in Padua lost during World War II derived from the traditions of Florence, albeit ones to which Mantegna gave his own special interpretation. His pictorial space, for instance, while similar to that devised by the Florentines, has a lower horizon line which allows his figures greater monumentality.

The figures themselves are modelled on Roman prototypes in the general manner of Donatello. His decorative finesse derives from antiquity and the almost archeological training that he got from Squarcione. By Mantegna was at the Ducal Palace in Mantua, where he became official painter to the Gonzaga family, executing a number of group portraits of the family.

Perhaps more importantly, he created a number of illusionistic masterpieces, such as the Camera degli Sposi frescoes in the so-called bridal chamber, of the palace.